Fish of the Black sea
The fish fauna of the Black sea is peculiar. The class of fishes that includes about 20 000 species, is divided into two sharply distinct branches — the cartilaginous and bony fish. In the Black sea are mainly of bony fish and only four cartilaginous family: cat sharks, prickly sharks, common stingrays and stingrays. Out of 167 species of sea fish of 37 species is primarily freshwater, 27 – 103 and brackish – marine. A significant part of the primary freshwater species that live in coastal lakes and river estuaries, can tolerate some salinization of water. Many of them (several species of herring, almost all servie fish, etc.) are semi-migratory and passage species, and some species are fully adapted to marine conditions of life.
Most of the group of brackish-water fishes of marine origin can withstand large desalination, and others (several species of gobies, etc.) live in fresh water. It is autochthonous relict species characteristic of the Ponto-Caspian basin. Their origin is connected with seas that filled the black sea geosyncline during the Neogene. In the third group — marine fish — can distinguish 8 species of boreal-Atlantic relicts, while the remaining 95 species belong to Mediterranean immigrants, who make up 57% of the species inhabiting the Black sea. This group includes primarily heat-loving species migrated from the Mediterranean sea.
The majority of immigrants (anchovy, mackerel, sprat, etc.) found good living conditions in the Black sea and managed to develop numerous populations. Some species have not fully adapted to the conditions of the Black sea. So, Bonito and lofar breed and feed in the Black sea, and winter in marble. There are some species that accidentally enter through the Bosphorus into the Black sea.
The Bulgarian coast is known 140 species of fish and 25 freshwater and brackish-water inhabiting in coastal lakes and estuaries, autochthonous 20 — 16 (4 mackerel species, 11 species of gobies and 1 species of shark) are primarily marine and 4 species (sturgeon) is primarily freshwater and 95 species of Mediterranean immigrants — including 8 species of boreal-Atlantic relicts.
St. Peter’s fish (Zeus faber) has a short high body, strongly compressed with bacon, length 60 cm Solid rays of the first dorsal fin and ventral fin are much elongated and filiform appendage over. At the base of the second dorsal and anal fins are located 5-8 bone shirochkov, each equipped with two spikes. On the sides, slightly behind Gill covers and under the middle of the first dorsal fin is large black spot, bordered with a light stripe.
Striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) covered with scales from the anterior olfactory apertures on the dorsal side of the head. Broad rounded snout. Adipose eyelids well developed and covering the eye to the pupil. Lapastica length about one-third of the fin, above the base of pectoral fin with dark-blue spot. The body reaches a length of 75 – 80 cm, weight 5 — 6 kg.
Distributed in tropical and temperate zones of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans, in the Mediterranean, Black and Azov seas.
Gregarious pelagic fish. In the Black sea there are three localized herds, Crimean, Caucasian, and Balkan. Lives 7-8 years. Reaches sexual maturity in 2-3 years. Fast-growing fish — two-year individuals reach 17-39 cm in length and weight 120-950 g, and a three — 34-48 cm and 700-1800 g multiplies In the Black sea: in the coastal zone and in open waters – from June to late August. Migrates during periods of feeding, spawning and wintering. In the spring, in April (rarely March) or in early may, the mullet from the Balkan herd appears in the waters of the Bulgarian coast, usually mid June, the shoals of its distributed along the coast of the Western half of the Black sea, is part of the whole summer and half of autumn in the coastal lake, the other part remains in the bays and desalinated sections of the sea; in autumn with the cooling water Loban gradually migrates to the South and to mid or late December, winters in the southern part of the Black sea, the Bosphorus and the Marmara sea.
From mullets fish striped mullet has the highest commercial value.
Seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax previously Morone labrax). Alternative names: labrack, sea wolf, Conan, sea bass, sea perch, sometimes sea bass, depth, Branzino or Branzino, spigola, Ragno. Seabass has an elongated body, slightly compressed laterally. The upper rear end of the Gill cover — two stud. The first dorsal fin is not connected with the second. Caudal fin weakly concave. The dorsal part of the body greyish-green, sides and belly silver-grey. At the upper end of the Gill covers is outlined in a dark stain. A length of 1 m, mass 12 kg. Distributed in the Atlantic ocean from Morocco to Norway and into the Mediterranean sea. In the Black sea — a rare species.